Optional Course in Embryology


 6-ED  Facultative seminars


 30 hours (10 seminars; 3 hours each);          Second semester, 

(Monday;   6:00 – 8.45 p.m.) – Paszkiewicz’s Lecture Hall

1. Prenatal diagnosis; maternal serum screening, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling. Treating fetus in utero.

2. Principles and mechanisms of morphogenesis and dysmorphogenesis. Birth defects.

3. Development of the musculoskeletal system and of the skin and its derivatives. Mechanisms of molecular regulation of the somites differentiation and segmentation as well as bones and muscles formation. Development of the skull, vertebrae, the vertebral column, sternum, ribs and skeletal muscles. Molecular control of the development of the skin and its derivatives. Selected congenital malformations of the musculoskeletal system and  anomalies of the skin and its derivatives.

4. Development of the head and neck. Differentiation of the pharyngeal apparatus; pharyngeal arches, clefts, and pouches. The molecular control of face, nasal and oral cavities, tongue, thyroid gland and salivary glands formation. Congenital anomalies in the head and neck region.

5. Major processes and signaling involved in formation of the nervous system. Neural tube differentiation and segmentation.

6. Development of the spinal cord and brain vesicles. Formation of the peripheral nervous system. Selected congenital malformations of the central and peripheral nervous system.

7. Body cavities and the respiratory system development. Differentiation of the conductive and respiratory portions of the respiratory system. Formation of lungs and respiratory tree. Development of body cavities and serous membranes; pericardial, peritoneal and pleural cavities, diaphragm, mesenteries. Congenital malformations of the respiratory system. Developmental anomalies of body cavities.

8. Development of the cardiovascular system. Signaling and mechanisms controlling  formation of the heart tube and  further  differentiation of the heart. Formation of the vasculature; arterial and venous systems. Fetal circulation and circulatory changes at birth.  Development of lymphatic system. Birth defects of the heart and vessels.

9. Formation of the gastrointestinal system. Body folding. Signaling processes involved in the regionalization  of primitive gut and its further development. Differentiation of foregut; formation of esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen. Formation of midgut (intestinal loop, cytodifferentiation of epithelium, outer intestinal wall and its innervation) and hindgut. Selected congenital abnormalities of the gastrointestinal system.

10. Development of the urogenital system. Molecular regulation of the urinary system formation; pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros. Formation of ureters, urinary bladder , urethra and prostate gland. Development of genital system; molecular mechanisms and signaling controlling male and female gonads as well as genital ducts and external genitalia formation. Selected birth defects of the urinary and genital systems.